Upstream emissions refer to greenhouse gas emissions that occur during the production, extraction, or transportation of goods and services in a company’s supply chain. They fall under the scope 3 emissions category, which includes indirect emissions associated with a company’s activities that occur outside its operational boundaries. Upstream emissions are also known as supply chain emissions. Examples of upstream emissions include emissions from extracting and processing raw materials, manufacturing and transporting components or materials used in the company’s products and transporting goods to distribution centres or retail outlets. These emissions are linked to various supply chain activities involving suppliers, contractors, and other business partners. Measuring and managing upstream emissions can be challenging, involving multiple stakeholders and dispersed activities. However, addressing upstream emissions is crucial in mitigating a company’s environmental impact.