Life cycle assessment (LCA)
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a methodology used to assess a product’s environmental impact throughout its entire life cycle, from raw material extraction to manufacturing, use, and end-of-life disposal or recycling. LCA is a comprehensive and systematic approach that considers the environmental impacts of all stages of a product or process, including energy and resource use, emissions to air, water, and soil, waste generation, and other environmental burdens. LCA involves quantifying and evaluating a product’s or process’s ecological or environmental impacts by analysing its inputs (e.g., materials, energy) and outputs (e.g., emissions, waste) at each stage of its life cycle. The assessment considers the direct impacts (e.g., emissions from production processes) and indirect impacts (e.g., emissions from the production of raw materials or energy used during the life cycle) associated with the product or process. LCA is widely used in various industries, including manufacturing, construction, transportation, and consumer goods, to support sustainability and environmental management efforts.