Global warming refers to the long-term increase in Earth’s average surface temperature due to human activities, primarily releasing greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide (CO₂), methane (CH₄), and nitrous oxide (N₂O), trap heat in the atmosphere, leading to a warming effect on the planet. Human activities have significantly increased the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, leading to accelerated global warming. The consequences of global warming include rising sea levels, more frequent and severe weather events, melting glaciers and polar ice caps, disruption of ecosystems, and impacts on human health and agriculture. Efforts to mitigate global warming include reducing greenhouse gas emissions, transitioning to renewable energy sources, promoting energy efficiency, adopting sustainable land management practices, and raising awareness about the need for climate action. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is a leading authority on global warming and provides scientific assessments and guidance on climate change to policymakers and the public.