CO₂ emissions are often understood as those that arise during an asset’s use or operation (e.g. a building or other infrastructure). Less obvious are emissions already “embedded” in a building or infrastructure. Emissions that result from raw material extraction, the production of building materials, and other processes up to the decommissioning are referred to as “Embodied Carbon”. More specifically, the term “Embodied Carbon” refers to those greenhouse gas emissions that occur or have already occurred during the entire lifecycle of a building and cannot be attributed to “Operational Carbon”. That includes all processes upstream and downstream of the actual usage phase. That also includes CO₂ emissions from extensive renovation or refurbishment.